Friday, July 07, 2017
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Fluoride Dangers Blog
Fluoride Fails Blog
Saturday, January 09, 2016
Our children are already fluoride-overdosed. Connett reveals “The rates of fluorosis have continued to rise since the early 2000s, as evident by the CDC’s 2011-2012 NHANES survey, which found that 57% of adolescents now have the condition, with a staggering 21% of adolescents displaying moderate fluorosis on at least two teeth, up from 2% in 1999-2004 Severe fluorosis has also increased, from < 1% to 2%.”
Dental fluorosis is white spotted, yellow, brown and/or pitted teeth which occurs when children consume too much fluoride while their teeth are forming.
What is the
The NTP was established in 1978 to develop cutting-edge scientific tools to investigate "concerns about the human health effects of chemical agents in our environment." The NTP was created because "Many human diseases were thought to be directly or indirectly related to chemical exposures; therefore, it was thought that decreasing or eliminating human exposures to those chemicals would help prevent some human disease and disability."
Tuesday, June 30, 2015
Fluoridation May Not Prevent Cavities, Scientific Review Shows
Friday, December 19, 2014
"The cessation of all compulsory water fluoridation schemes should be the goal of all public health agencies, ethical lawmakers and informed citizens," argues Rita Barnett-Rose, Chapman University Associate Law Professor, (online August 2014), reports the New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation (NYSCOF).
SOURCE .New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc. (NYSCOF)
NYSCOF News Releases
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Thursday, May 01, 2014
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Sunday, March 30, 2014
Wednesday, October 30, 2013
NEW YORK, June 25, 2013 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Fluoride is one of 213 known brain-toxic chemicals that may lower the intelligence of generations of children, reports renowned physician and 30-year brain researcher, Dr. Phillipe Grandjean in his…
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Sunday, February 03, 2013
Studies of Fluoride Supplements: No Evidence of Safety - No Benefit Either (via PR Newswire)
NEW YORK, Dec. 19, 2011 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- According to the Cochrane Oral Health Group, fluoride supplements fail to reduce tooth decay in primary teeth, permanent teeth cavity-reduction is dubious and health risks are little studied (1). Further, "When fluoride supplements were compared with…
Monday, January 28, 2013
New Research: Fluoride Damages Children's Liver and Kidneys (NYSCOF) (via PR Newswire)
NEW YORK, Aug. 22 /PRNewswire/ -- Fluoride in drinking water damages children's liver and kidney functions, according to a new study in "Environmental Research"(1), reports the New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation (NYSCOF). Xiong and colleagues write, "Our results suggest that drinking…
New Studies: Fluoridation Fails to Reduce Cavities in New York City and Nationally (via PR Newswire)
NEW YORK, April 11, 2012 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- New research shows that fluoride chemicals added to U.S. public water supplies are not reducing tooth decay as promoted and promised by government agencies, reports the New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc. (NYSCOF). Using federal…
Sunday, January 27, 2013
Limit Fluoride to Prevent Lead Poisoning, Study Says (via PR Newswire)
NEW YORK, March 15 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Fluoride chemicals added to public water supplies, boosts lead absorption in lab animals' bones, teeth and blood, report Sawan, et al. (Toxicology 2/2010). Earlier studies already show children's blood-lead-levels are higher in fluoridated communities…
Friday, October 08, 2010
Sunday, September 26, 2010
Saturday, September 25, 2010
Friday, September 24, 2010
Thursday, September 23, 2010
Saturday, May 01, 2010
– Fluoride chemicals added to public water supplies, boosts lead absorption in lab animals’ bones, teeth and blood, report Sawan, et al. (Toxicology 2/2010). Earlier studies already show children’s blood-lead-levels are higher in fluoridated communities, reports Sawan’s research team.
“…exposure to increased amounts of lead and fluoride occurs at about the same age (1-3 years)… Therefore, this is a critical time when systemic exposure to fluoride should be minimized since fluoride may increase lead accumulation,” the researchers caution.
Low-level lead exposure is associated with lower IQ, ADHD and many health and behavior ailments.
NSF International is a private company that regulates public water supply additives. February 2008 NSF reported that 2% of the 245 fluoridation chemicals sampled from 2000 to 2006 had detectable levels of Lead. (There are approximately 155,000 US public water supplies.) Lead is an allowable trace contaminant in fluoridation chemicals along with antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and thallium. See:
Sawan’s team put fluosilicic acid, with and without lead, into lab animals’ drinking water. They found more lead in tooth enamel, surface bone, whole bone, and tooth dentine in rats co-exposed to fluoride and lead.
Possibly anticipating criticism that rats were fed higher fluoride-concentrated water than people drink, the authors write, “this concentration was chosen because it produces plasma fluoride levels that are comparable with those commonly found in humans…”
Increased prevalence and severity of fluoride-discolored teeth (fluorosis) proves US children are already fluoride-overexposed "which may cause their blood-lead levels to increase and produce more lead toxicity,” they write.
“These findings suggest that a biological effect, not recognized so far, may underlie the epidemiological association between increased blood-lead levels in children and water fluoridation,” concludes Sawan’s research team.
“[O]ur findings may have serious implications for populations exposed to increased amounts of both lead and fluoride, particularly young children,” the research team writes.
Attorney Paul Beeber, President, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation (NYSCOF) says, “People need to lobby and petition their legislators to stop fluoridation in their towns, cities and states. Legislators are ignoring the science proving fluoridation is endangering our health, our water supplies and wasting tax dollars while denying freedom of choice.” (see: http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/sitemap.html )
Masters and Coplan’s landmark studies show higher blood-lead-levels in children living in silico-fluoridated communities (Neurotoxicology 2000, 2007). Macek’s research shows children’s higher blood-lead-levels are associated with water fluoridation when lead is already in the environment (Environmental Health Perspectives, 2006).
Some fluoridation chemicals originate in China, Mexico and Japan, reports the CDC. ABC-TV Boston reported that a Massachusetts city was forced to discontinue fluoridation because Chinese fluoridation chemicals were clogging up the water system with an unidentifiable contaminant.
New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc
Tuesday, January 26, 2010
New York - January 25 2010 -- Sixty-five years ago, sodium fluoride powder was slowly poured into Grand Rapids, Michigan's public water supply to see if drinking fluoridated water (fluoridation) really safely reduced children's tooth decay. Nearby Muskegon was left fluoridation-free, for only 5 years, as the experiment's control city for comparison purposes even though evaluations were made after 15 years. (1)
Before then, sodium fluoride was mainly used as a rat poison.
The study failed and was seriously flawed; but early over-zealous fluoridationists ignored this inconvenient
truth. Fluoridation was declared a success, anyway (2) and spread across the country and the world based on positive-spun PR but invalid science.
So what's happening today?
Grand Rapids children have high rates of tooth decay and fluoride overdose - dental fluorosis, white spotted, yellow, brown and/or pitted enamel.(3)
According to the Grand Rapids Press, one pediatric dentist said in 2007 "...we see children under the age of 2 with active decay...Rather than just a few cavities, we're seeing a lot of cavities. It's not unusual to see a child with 8 to 10 cavities." (4)
Despite 65 years of water fluoridation reaching 70% of Americans on public water supplies and virtually 100% via the food supply and despite 55 years of fluoridated toothpaste, tooth decay has increased in our most fluoridated population - toddlers - and UNtreated tooth decay has risen, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (5) Incredibly, American children have died from the consequences of untreated tooth decay. (5a) with up to 48% of US school children now sporting dental fluorosis, according to the CDC.
Today sodium fluoride is purchased from China and something's wrong with it. Water engineers complain it's clogging up their systems (6)
Fluoridation opposition is scientific, respectable and growing.
Over 2,700 professionals urge the US Congress to stop water fluoridation until Congressional hearings are conducted, citing scientific evidence that fluoridation, long promoted to fight tooth decay, is ineffective and has serious health risks. See statement http://www.fluorideaction.org/statement.august.2007.html
Also, eleven Environmental Protection Agency employee unions representing over 7000 environmental and public health professionals called for a moratorium on drinking water fluoridation programs across the country, and have asked EPA management to recognize fluoride as posing a serious risk of causing cancer in people.
Approximately, 80 US communities rejected fluoridation in 2008 & 2009 (7).
1) Grand Rapids fluoridation Study - Results Pertaining to the
Eleventh Year of Fluoridation, by Francis A Arnold ,American Journal of Public Health, May 1957 "In making comparisons on these data it should be remembered that Muskegon started fluoridation in July 1951" http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1551218/pdf/amjphnation01088-0018.pdf
2) Fluoridation: Errors and Omissions in Experimental Trials [Chapters
19, 20 and 21. Philip Sutton. Originally published in 1960]
3) "Some babies get too much fluoride," The Grand Rapids Press, by Morgan Jarema October 09, 2007 http://www.fluoridealert.org/news/3091.html
4) "Protecting kids' teeth includes trips to the dentist," The Grand Rapids Press, by Jennifer Ackerman-Haywood, June 19, 2007
5) "Tooth Decay In American Preschool Kids On The Rise"
5a) "For Want of a Dentist Pr. George's Boy Dies After Bacteria From Tooth Spread to Brain," Washington Post
6) "Feds Note Fluoride Problem," January 25, 2010
Friday, November 20, 2009
State University of New York (SUNY) researchers found more premature births in fluoridated than non-fluoridated upstate New York communities, according to a presentation made at the American Public Health Association’s annual meeting on November 9, 2009 in Philadelphia. (1)
Fluoridation is the addition of fluoride chemicals into public water supplies ostensibly to prevent tooth decay. Many groups oppose fluoridation because of its scientifically-documented health risks. (2)
Human pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks or just more than 9 months. A baby born before 37 weeks of pregnancy is considered a preterm (or premature) birth. About 12 percent of US pregnancies are preterm and this is one of the top causes of infant death in the US, according to the US National Institutes of Health. (3)
The SUNY researchers used 1993-2002 data from the NY Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS), which collects patient characteristics, diagnoses, treatments, services and charges for every hospital discharge, ambulatory surgery patient and emergency department admission in New York State. They recorded fluoridation residence status (under or over 1 milligram fluoride per Liter of water) and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, neighborhood poverty level, hypertension and diabetes.
“Domestic water fluoridation was associated with an increased risk of PTB [preterm birth]. This relationship was most pronounced among women in the lowest SES [socio-economic-status] groups (>10% poverty) and those of non-white racial origin,” write Rachel Hart, et al. Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, SUNY School of Public Health.
Previous published research by others has shown that fluoride can interfere with the reproductive system. (4)
“It would be wise to follow the lead of the 7,000 Environmental Protection Agency scientists and public health professionals (5) who asked Congress to place a moratorium on fluoridation until definitive studies are conducted to prove fluoridation is safe for every human consuming it,” says attorney Paul Beeber, President, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc. “Clearly fluoridation is not safe for everyone," says Beeber.
At the request of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a National Research Council (NRC) panel of experts reviewed current fluoride toxicology. In 2006 they concluded that the maximum amount of fluoride allowed in drinking water is too high to be protective of health. At least three NRC panel members believe water fluoride levels should be as close to zero as possible. The EPA has yet to perform a fluoride risk assessment based on the NRC's findings leaving millions of Americans at risk of fluoride's adverse health effects.
According to Dr. Bill Hirzy, Chair of American University’s Chemistry Department and former EPA scientist from 1981 to 2008, the EPA fears “setting a maximum contaminant level goal of zero because that would mean the EPA is going to be responsible for the end of the water fluoridation program. EPA knows that there will be enormous political flak for doing that.” (6)
SOURCE: New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc (NYSCOF)
Follow NYSCOF on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/nyscof
Previous News Releases: http://tinyurl.com/NewsReleases
1) 197468 Relationship between municipal water fluoridation and preterm birth in Upstate New York Rachel Hart, BA, MPH, et al. Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY
(2) Fluoride Action Network – Health Effects Database
(3) National Institutes of Health, “Preterm Labor and Birth,”
(4) Fluoride Action Network - HEALTH EFFECTS: Fluoride & the Reproductive System http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/repro/index.html
(5) Why EPA Headquarters Union of Scientists Opposes Fluoridation
(6) The Eagle, “Hirzy: EPA drags feet on fluoride.” by Howie Perlman, October 28, 2009
Monday, June 15, 2009
New York – May 2009 -- Blood fluoride levels were significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma than in control groups, according to research published in Biological Trace Element Research (April 2009). Osteosarcoma, a rare bone cancer, occurs mostly in children and young adults
Sandhu and colleagues measured serum fluoride levels in three equal groups of age-matched and sex-matched patients. Group one had osteosarcoma; group two had non-osteosarcoma bone tumors; and group three had musculo-skeletal pain. (1)
“Mean serum fluoride concentration was found to be significantly higher in patients with osteosarcoma as compared to the other two groups,” write Sandhu’s team. “(T)his report proves a link between raised fluoride levels in serum and osteosarcoma,” they write.
This reinforces a 2006 published Harvard study by Bassin showing a link between water fluoridation and osteosarcoma in young boys. (2)
A 1992 New Jersey Department of Health study shows osteosarcoma rates higher among young males in fluoridated vs. unfluoridated regions of New Jersey. (3)
More studies link fluoride to bone and other cancers but are downplayed or ignored by government officials. (4)(5)
Bone defects similar to bone cancer were detected in fluoridated Newburgh NY children as early as 1955. Newburgh is home of the first human health fluoridation experiment begun in 1945.
According to Christopher Bryson in The Fluoride Deception. “A radiologist, Dr. John Caffey of Columbia University, called the defects ‘striking’ in their ‘similarity’ to bone cancer… and seen more than twice as frequently among boys in Newburgh as among boys in nonfluoridated Kingston [the control city].” (6)
In 2006, the prestigious National Research Council review of fluoride/fluoridation toxicology found a fluoride/bone cancer link plausible.
“If governments truly want to save money, stopping fluoridation is a no-brainer. It would save money, preserve health and teeth,” says attorney Paul Beeber, President, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation.
In 2005, 11 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) employee unions, representing over 7000 environmental and public health professionals called for a moratorium on fluoridation programs across the country and asked EPA management to recognize fluoride as posing a serious risk of causing cancer in people. (7)
In addition, over 2,440 professionals urge the US Congress to stop fluoridation until Congressional hearings are conducted, citing scientific evidence that fluoridation, long promoted to fight tooth decay, is ineffective and has serious health risks. See statement:
Tell Congress to Stop Fluoridation : http://congress.FluorideAction.Net
1) Biological Trace Element Research, “Serum Fluoride and Sialic Acid Levels in Osteosarcoma,” by Sandhu R, Lal H, Kundu ZS, Kharb S, Apr 24, 2009 [Epub ahead of print]
2) Cancer Causes Control "Age-specific fluoride exposure in drinking water and
osteosarcoma (United States), by Bassin et al., May 2006
3) New Jersey Department of Health, “A Brief Report On The Association Of Drinking Water Fluoridation And The Incidence of Osteosarcoma Among Young Males,” Cohn PD. (1992).
4) Fluoride and Osteosarcoma
5) Fluoride and Cancer
6) The Fluoride Deception, by Christopher Bryson
with a foreword by Dr. Theo Colborn, Seven Stories Press,
7) Press Release August 19, 2005, “EPA Unions Call for Nationwide Moratorium on Fluoridation, Congressional Hearing on Adverse Effects, Youth Cancer Cover Up,” Contact: Dr. William Hirzy, Vice-President NTEU Chapter 280
New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc
PO Box 263
Old Bethpage, NY 11804
Past News Releases
Wednesday, March 25, 2009
The American Public Health Association’s (APHA) new Fluoridation Position Statement is based on many documents that neither support nor evaluate fluoridation’s safety and/or effectiveness as it claims (1).
APHA asserts, “All of these reviews have found CWF [Community Water Fluoridation] to be safe and effective.” Here’s the truth about APHA’s “supportive” references:
National Research Council (2006)
This isn’t a fluoridation risk/benefit analysis. It found EPA’s current fluoride maximum-contaminant-level-goal for drinking water is not protective of health and must be lowered. (2)
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2003)
This report says "… subsets of the population may be unusually susceptible to the toxic effects of fluoride and its compounds…the elderly, people with osteoporosis, people with deficiencies of calcium, magnesium, vitamin C, and/or protein." (3)
University of York, UK (2000)
About this report, the Centre for Review and Dissemination writes “We were unable to discover any reliable good-quality evidence in the fluoridation literature world-wide.” (4)
Lewis and Banting, Canada (1994)
“The effectiveness of water fluoridation alone cannot now be determined,” they write. (5)
New York State Department of Health (1990)
The authors concluded: “… some individuals may experience hypersensitivity to fluoride-containing agents.” And, “…it is currently impossible to draw firm conclusions regarding the independent effect of fluoride in drinking water on caries prevalence using an ecologic study design.” (6)
World Health Organization (2006)
This report, not about fluoridation, documents high levels of natural fluoride causing human bone and teeth malformation in many countries. (7)
Medical Research Council, UK (2002)
This report, not a fluoridation risk/benefit analysis, identifies fluoridation health uncertainties such as total exposure and bone effects. (8)
Institute of Medicine (1999)
Since fluoride is not a nutrient, this report set the adequate intake from all sources to avoid children’s moderate dental fluorosis (discolored teeth) and, also, the upper limit to avoid crippling bone damage -- which the IOM admits “is too high for persons with certain illnesses…” (9)
While APHA says that fluoridation reduced the incidence and severity of tooth decay, ”No clear reasons for the caries decline have been identified,” according to dental textbook, Dentistry, Dental Practice, and the Community (Burt and Eklund).
“Why is the APHA misrepresenting these documents and not publicizing fluoridation’s health risks and uncertainties, therefore, protecting fluoridation instead of the American public?” asks attorney Paul Beeber, President, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc.
Over 2,200 professionals urge Congress to stop fluoridation. Join them at http://congress.FluorideAction.Net
1) American Public Health Association Oral Health Section Newsletter, Winter 2009
2) “Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of
Committee on Fluoride in Drinking Water, National
Research Council, Executive Summary, 2006
3) US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluordie, and Fluorine, (2003) http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp11.pdf
4) “What the 'York Review' on the fluoridation of drinking water really found,” October 28 2003,A statement from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/fluoridnew.htm
5) Lewis DW, Banting DW. Water fluoridation: current effectiveness and dental fluorosis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1994;22:153–158 http://tinyurl.com/bhtlkq
6). Kaminsky LS, Mahoney MC, Leach J, Melius J, Miller MJ. Fluoride: benefits and risks of exposure. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1990;1:261–281 http://crobm.iadrjournals.org/cgi/reprint/1/4/261
7) World Health Organization, “New WHO report tackles fluoride in drinking-water,” November 2006 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/new/2006/nw04/en/index.html
8). Medical Research Council. Medical Research Council Working Group Report: Water Fluoridation and Health. September 2002. www.mrc.ac.uk/Utilities/Documentrecord/index.htm?d=MRC002482
9) Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Fluoride: Background Information. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. Report of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Washington, DC:http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309063507
Thursday, October 02, 2008
Fluoridation puts tea drinkers at risk of damaged bones, discolored teeth and soft tissue harm, studies show.
Tea has naturally high fluoride levels. Excess fluoride can weaken bones and discolor children’s un-erupted teeth. When fluoridated water is used to make tea, fluoride levels consumed can be health damaging.
Four cups, of 20 teas sampled, delivered 0.8 to 1.8 mg of fluoride, when non-fluoridated water was used, reports Cao et al. in Food Chemistry.
“Among populations habitually consuming black tea, water fluoridation is not only unnecessary but also possibly harmful…The target organs of chronic fluoride intoxication are not only the teeth and skeleton, but also the liver, kidney, nervous and reproductive systems,” they write.
A March 2008 Food and Chemical Toxicology study found up to 4.5, 1.8, and 0.5 mg/L fluoride in black, green and white teas, respectively, when brewed for 5 minutes (61 teas sampled).
Brewed teas could contain up to 6 mg/L fluoride depending on the amount of dry tea used, the water fluoride concentration and the brewing time, according to the American Dental Association (ADA).
According to 1997 ADA data, 3 and 4 milligrams daily is adequate for women and men, respectively, to prevent fluoride’s adverse effects. It’s much lower for children. In 2006, the National Research Council reported the basis for those levels should be reduced.
Case Reports by Cao and Yi in the Journal of Fluorine Chemistry (February 2008) “Tea and fluorosis:”
--A 57-year-old Englishman’s misdiagnosed Paget’s disease (weakened bones) with osteoarthritis was finally correctly diagnosed as skeletal fluorosis caused by his long-term heavy tea-drinking habit.
--A Pakistani woman’s dental fluorosis resulted solely from tea which she consumed from age two.
--A 36-year-old Chinese woman’s ten-years of joint pain disappeared when she stopped drinking tea.
--French doctors identified 5 patients who developed bone softening (osteomalacia) from drinking tea.
-- An American woman's fluoride-caused debilitating joint pains disappeared when her two-gallon-a-day iced-tea habit stopped.
"By 2020, one in two Americans over age 50 will be at risk for fractures from osteoporosis or low bone mass," according to the Surgeon General.
“It’s clear that fluoridation is increasing Americans’ bone damage. Presidential candidates must pledge to stop water fluoridation if they truly care about individuals and not fluoridation-supporting special interest groups such as the American Dental Association,” says attorney Paul Beeber, President, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc.
Fluoride is in many foods as determined by the USDA http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=6312
According to American Dental Association, the adequate intake of fluoride to avoid moderate fluorosis (yellow teeth) is:
-- 0.01 mg/day for 0 to 6-month-olds
-- 0.5 mg/day for 7 through 12 months
-- 0.7 mg/day for 1 to 3-year-olds
-- 1.0 mg/day for 4 to 8-year-olds
Mild fluorosis is white spots, lines or blotches to the teeth and can occur at levels lower than the above.
The CDC reports that fluorosis afflicts up to 48% of US school children - 4% of it severe.
Both the ADA and CDC advise that infant formula should not be mixed with fluoridated water.
New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation
Past News Releases: http://tinyurl.com/NewsReleases
Food Chemistry, "Safety evaluation on fluoride content in black tea," by Cao et al. (November 2004)
Food Chemical Toxicology, "Assessment of fluoride concentration and daily intake by human from tea and herbal infusions," by Malinowska et al. (March 2008)
Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, "Tea and fluorosis," by Juan Yi and Jin Cao (February 2008)
Thursday, May 22, 2008
There is clear evidence that small amounts of fluoride, at or near levels added to U.S. water supplies, present potential risks to the thyroid gland, according to the National Research Council’s (NRC) first-ever published review of the fluoride/thyroid literature.(A)
Fluoride, in the form of silicofluorides, injected into 2/3 of U.S. public water supplies, ostensibly to reduce tooth decay, was never safety-tested.(B)
“Many Americans are exposed to fluoride in the ranges associated with thyroid effects, especially for people with iodine deficiency,” says Kathleen Thiessen, PhD, co-author of the government-sponsored NRC report. “The recent decline in iodine intake in the U.S could contribute to increased toxicity of fluoride for some individuals,” says Thiessen.
“A low level of thyroid hormone can increase the risk of cardiac disease, high cholesterol, depression and, in pregnant woman, decreased intelligence of offspring,” said Thiessen.(C)
Common thyroid symptoms include fatigue, weight gain, constipation, fuzzy thinking, low blood pressure, fluid retention, depression, body pain, slow reflexes, and more. It’s estimated that 59 million Americans have thyroid conditions.(D)
Robert Carton, PhD, an environmental scientist who worked for over 30 years for the U.S. government including managing risk assessments on high priority toxic chemicals, says “fluoride has detrimental effects on the thyroid gland of healthy males at 3.5 mg a day. With iodine deficiency, the effect level drops to 0.7 milligrams/day for an average male.”(E) (1.0 mg/L fluoride is in most water supplies)
Among many others, the NRC Report cites human studies which show
- fluoride concentrations in thyroids exceeding that found in other soft tissues except kidney
- an association between endemic goiter and fluoride exposure or enamel fluorosis in human populations
- fluoride adversely affects thyroid and parathyroid hormones, which affect bone health
“If you have a thyroid problem, avoiding fluoride may be a good preventive health measure for you,” writes Drs’ Richard and Karilee Shames in “Thyroid Power.”(F).
Over, 1700 Physicians, Dentists, Scientists, Academics and Environmentalists urge Congress to stop water fluoridation until Congressional hearings are conducted. They cite new scientific evidence that fluoridation is ineffective and has serious health risks. (http://www.fluorideaction.org/statement.august.2007.html)
Scientific American quotes John Doull, professor emeritus of pharmacology and toxicology at the University of Kansas Medical Center, who chaired the NRC committee thusly, “The thyroid changes do worry me.”
“Fluoride can harm bones, teeth, kidneys, the brain and more,” says lawyer Paul Beeber, President, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation. "It's time to stop fluoridation."
Eleven environmental protection agency employee unions, representing over 7000 environmental and public health professionals , called for a halt on drinking water fluoridation programs across the USA and asked EPA management to recognize fluoride as posing a serious risk of causing cancer in people.
You can support this professionals' statement and our EPA scientists by petitioning your representatives here:
(A) "Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards," Committee on Fluoride in Drinking Water, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council of the National Academies of Science. March 2006 Chapter 8
"Thyroid Function: Fluoride exposure in humans is associated with elevated TSH concentrations, increased goiter prevalence, and altered T4 and T3 concentrations." (Page 262)
"(The thyroid effects are associated with average fluoride intakes that) will be reached by persons with average exposures at fluoride concentrations of 1-4 mg/L in drinking water, especially the children." (Page 260)
(B) Sodium Hexafluorosilicate and Fluorosilicic Acid
Review of Toxicological Literature, October 2001
(C) Chemical & Engineering News, “Fluoride Risks Are Still A Challenge,” by Bette Hileman, September 4, 2006,
(D) Mary Shomon, About.com Thyroid editor, Patient Advocate -- Author of "The Thyroid Diet" and "Living Well With Hypothyroidism"
(E) Fluoride, “Review of the 2006 National Research Council Report: Fluoride in Drinking Water,” July-September 2006, by Robert J. Carton
(F) Thyroid Power and Feeling Fat Fuzzy or Frazzeled“by Richard Shames MD & Karilee Shames RN, PhD http://www.thyroidpower.com http://www.feelingfff.com/
Fluoride/Thyroid Health Effects
Sources of Fluoride
Sulfuryl Fluoride Pesticide Residues Allowed on Foods
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Fluoride Database of Selected Beverages and Foods
Wednesday, February 20, 2008
"Caries experience may be associated with income,” reports the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Low income, not fluoridation deficiency, predicts more cavities is revealed in statistics posted on the CDC’s website (1).
Those states reporting third-graders cavity rates and children living below the federal poverty level indicate that poor children have more cavities – even when water is fluoridated. And, the states with the highest rates of fluoridation don’t have the lowest cavity rates. For example, CDC statistics show that:
Despite a 60% fluoridation rate, Arkansas has the most third-graders suffering with tooth decay (72%) and the highest number of poor children (45%)
Oklahoma third-graders endure the second worst cavity rate (69%) even though 3/4 of the state is fluoridated. But 41% are poor, the second poorest state on the CDC’s list.
Similarly, 89% fluoridated South Dakota reveals the third worst decay rate (68%) where 41% are poor.
At the low end:
Massachusetts, Maine and Vermont third-graders have the least decay – 49%, 45% and 44%, respectively, and the smallest amount of poor children (26%, 32% and 31%), Fluoridation rates: 63%, 75%, and 54%, respectively.
Additionally, the CDC reports that, while fluoridation numbers improved, cavity experience in two – four-year-olds got worse. (9)
Healthy people have healthy teeth. Ten of the twelve least healthiest (10) states as reported by the United Health Foundation have the most toothless populations (11) when compared to CDC statistics, even though most of those states are heavily fluoridated (12).
“The cavity-prone and toothless are not fluoride-deficient; but are fluoride overdosed. Poor health and/or low income predicts tooth decay,” says lawyer Paul Beeber, President, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation. “Fluoridation is a waste of money and is no substitute for a healthy diet and dental care,” says Beeber..
Water engineers dispense fluoride chemicals into 2/3 of Americans via their water supply attempting to prevent tooth decay. However, in the United Kingdom, where only 10% drink fluoridated water, tooth decay rates are equal too or better than those of the U.S.(2) and have declined over the last ten years.(3)
In contrast, U.S. cavity rates increased (4) along with fluoride overdose symptoms, prompting some researchers to suggest that water fluoridation be stopped (5a,b).
In both the U.S. and U.K., lack of money and dental care predicts higher rates of tooth decay – regardless of fluoridation status (6a,b).
By neglecting the poor, organized dentistry helped create an oral health epidemic.(7) Promoting fluoridation may deflect government regulators from forcing dentists to treat poor children.(8) .
Take Action to End Fluoridation: http://www.FluorideAction.Net/congress
(2) U.S. Centers for Disease Control, Oral Health: Preventing Cavities, Gum Disease Disease, and Oral Cancers At A Glance 1004 http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/aag/aag_oh.htm
(3) National Statistics “Dentinal Decay Children's permanent teeth better than ever” http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=973
(4) Wall Street Journal http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/news/archive/2002/03/08/financial1058EST0079.DTL
(5a) “A Quantitative Look at Fluorosis and Fluoride Exposure and Intake of Children Using a Health Risk Assessment Approach,” Environmental Health Perspectives, by Serap Erdal1 and Susan N. Buchanan2, Online 14 September 2004 http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/members/2004/7077/7077.pdf
(6b) Inequalities in children’s caries experience: the nature and size of the UK problem,” by Nigel B. Pitts, Dental Health Services Research Unit, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK http://www.dundee.ac.uk/dhsru/cdh/supp151/#2
(7) “FIRST-EVER SURGEON GENERAL'S REPORT ON ORAL HEALTH FINDS PROFOUND DISPARITIES IN NATION'S POPULATION,” News Release, May 2000, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/news/pressreleases/pr_oral_52000.htm
(8) Oregon Dental Association newsletter, April 2004, Volume 9, Number 11 (Page 6) http://www.oregondental.org/oda/section.cfm?wSectionID=1277
(9) Oral Health Progress Review 3/17/04 http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ppt/hpdata2010/focusareas/fa21.ppt (slide 5)
(10) United Health Foundation “2004 Overall State Health Rankings” http://www.unitedhealthfoundation.org/shr2004/Findings.html
(11) CDC tooth loss rates by state http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5250a3.htm
(12) CDC’s 2004 Water Fluoridation Statistics By State http://www2.cdc.gov/nccdphp/doh/synopses/WaterFluoridationV.asp?Year=2004&submit1=+Go+
Monday, October 22, 2007
Labels: Part two
Labels: Part 1
Thursday, September 06, 2007
NEW YORK -- The Fluoride Action Network (FAN) charges the American Dental Association (ADA) with
circulating false and misleading information in its newsletter (8/15) that expressed concern over professional "opposition to community water
ADA misrepresented important findings in the 2006 National Research Council (NRC)(2) report and trivialized the significance of the dental
fluorosis epidemic afflicting American children (CDC, 2005).
"We don't understand why the ADA won't deal honestly with the science that caused 600 professionals to urge fluoridation be ended,"(3) says Paul Connett, PhD, FAN Director.
The ADA says the NRC report is not relevant to water fluoridation, but, according to its website, made this statement before it had reviewed the
report. In March, 2006 it wrote: "Additional information will appear on ADA.org after the report has been reviewed"(4) but no further information
Connett says, "The ADA assessment is totally superficial, in contrast to statements from three NRC panel members who wrote important chapters in
Kathleen Thiessen, PhD says, "I have become increasingly convinced that deliberate exposure of a large fraction of the U.S. population ... to
uncontrolled and unmonitored intake of fluoride in their drinking water is unwise at best, and probably harmful to a substantial number of people."(5)
Hardy Limeback, PhD, DDS, writes, " ... it is obvious that the benefit of fluoridation is next to nil. ... I am even more convinced that fluoride
should be banned as a systemic drug (which includes water fluoridation)..."(6)
Robert L. Isaacson, PhD adds, "The health of the entire country is at risk as long as fluoridation of the drinking water remains uncurbed."(6)
The ADA claims that dental fluorosis, which now impacts 32% of American children, is "so slight that only trained professionals can notice it."
However, very mild fluorosis affects up to 25% of tooth surfaces and mild up to 50%(7). The CDC reports that 4% of children have moderate or severe
fluorosis(8), in which all tooth surfaces are affected, frequently with brown staining and sometimes pitting.
"These categories are easy to identify and can result in psychological harm," says Connett. "We urge citizens to sign the ONLINE MESSAGE calling
for an end to fluoridation and Congressional hearings at:
SOURCE Fluoride Action Network http://www.FluorideAction.Net
Monday, July 23, 2007
New York – July 16, 2007 -- Fluoride supplements put children six and under at significant risk of permanently discolored teeth, according to a review of studies recently posted on the American Dental Association’s (ADA) web site in their new section, “evidence-based dentistry,” for dentists and their patients. (1)
Fluoride supplements, in graduating amounts up to 1 mg daily, are often prescribed to children who don’t drink fluoridated water, ostensibly to reduce tooth decay.
“This review confirmed that in non-fluoridated communities the use of fluoride supplements during the first 6 years of life is associated with a significant increase in the risk of developing dental fluorosis, write researchers Ismail & Bandekar and first published in Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, February 1999, (2) but posted to the ADA’s website July 2007.
Fluoride ingestion, once thought to reduce cavities, can lead to dental fluorosis – white spotted, yellow, brown and/or pitted tooth enamel. Modern science indicates fluoride absorbs into tooth enamel topically, primarily.(3)
Studies link dental fluorosis to children’s kidney damage (4) and bone fractures (5).
The ADA and Centers for Disease Control recently advised that fluoridated water should not be mixed into concentrated infant formula, in order to decrease dental fluorosis risk – now a growing U.S. problem. (6)
Never safety-tested by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration) (7), fluoride supplements do more harm than good.(8)
“While fluoride is proclaimed a significant cavity reducer, there is little, if any, science to support that," says lawyer Paul Beeber, President, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation.
A National Institutes of Health 2001 news release supports Beeber's assertion: "... the (NIH) panel was disappointed in the overall quality of the clinical data that it reviewed. According to the panel, far too many studies were small, poorly described, or otherwise methodologically flawed." (9) Over 560 studies evaluated fluoride among those reviewed by the NIH Consensus Development Program panel for the Diagnosis and Management of Dental Caries.
Recent research shows that fluoridation delivers risks with little, if any, benefit.(10)
“Save money, save our health, save the planet. Stop fluoridation,” says Beeber.
2) "Fluoride supplements and fluorosis: a meta-analysis," Community Dentistry & Oral Epidemiology, 1999 Feb;27(1):48-56, by Ismail & Bandekar .
4) "Dose-effect relationship between drinking water fluoride levels and damage to liver and kidney functions in children," Environmental Research,2007 Jan;103(1):112-6. Epub 2006 Jul 10, by Xiong, et. al
5) "Dental and Early-State Skeletal Fluorosis in Children Induced by Fluoride in Brick-Tea," Fluoride 2005;38(1):44–47 Cao, et. al
8) "The case for eliminating the use of dietary fluoride supplements for young children," Journal of Public Health Dentistry, Fall 1999, by Burt
10) "Community Water Fluoridation and Caries Prevention: A CriticalReview," Clinical Oral Investigations, by Pizzo et.al, 2007 Feb 27;
Wednesday, May 16, 2007
Giovanna Giuliana 2007 Feb 27; [Epub ahead of print]
New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation
Fluoride Action Network
Fluoridation News Releases
Sunday, February 18, 2007
http://mfile. akamai.com/ 25577/wmv/ vod.ibsys. com/2007/ 0126/10846883. 200k.asx"
Friday, February 02, 2007
New York – January 30, 2007 -- One day a year, dentists country-wide celebrate “Give-Kids-A-Smile” day, (GKAS), with much self-promotion and merchandising. This year it’s February 2. But for the rest of the year, most dentists refuse children on Medicaid or other government-sponsored insurance (1).
Instead, dentistry promotes water fluoridation to remedy tooth decay disparities between haves and have-nots.
Unfortunately, that’s failing:
New York State Department of Health statistics (2) illustrate fluoridation’s inability to equalize cavity rates between low and high socio-economic-status (SES) groups, and that fluoridation and tooth decay rates are not inversely related (3) See chart: http://www.freewebs.com/fluoridation/chart.htm
For example, non-fluoridated Nassau, Suffolk and Rockland Counties’ third-graders decay rates: 50%, 54% and 46%, respectively. In slightly fluoridated Albany County 38% have cavities.
Highly fluoridated NYS Counties include Monroe, Erie, Chemung, Broome, Wayne and Jefferson. Third-graders decay rates: 56%, 59%, 55%, 63%,66%,66% and 69%, respectively.
Despite fluoridated water reaching about ¾ of New Yorkers, 54% of third-graders have cavities and more untreated decay than third-graders nationally (33% vs 26%). Only one-fourth of NYS dentists submitted Medicaid claims (4).
Third-graders in 100% fluoridated New York City had more untreated cavities (38%) than their state and national counterparts (4).
Before organized dentistry became fluoride fixated, a 1950 Connecticut study, before fluoridation, clearly linked more fruit, vegetable and milk consumption to less cavities (5) Dentist Weston Price reported a similar correlation world-wide in his 1938 book, “Nutrition and Physical Degeneration.”
Today Connecticut mandates fluoridation. Yet 48% of 4-year-olds suffer untreated cavities (6) partially because 85% of dentists won’t or can’t treat patients with low-paying government-sponsored insurance (7).
After 60 years of water fluoridation reaching 2/3 of Americans via public water supplies, virtually 100% via the food supply and fluoridated dental products a multi-billion dollar international business, up to ½ of U.S. schoolchildren sport fluoride overdose symptoms as dental fluorosis – white spotted, yellow or brown, sometimes pitted teeth (8) But tooth decay is still a national epidemic, especially among low-income Americans who can't find dentists willing or able to fix their rotting teeth.
Regardless of fluoride intake, modern science continues to show that young children with fewer cavities eat more produce (9). Only 12% of US kids eat enough fruits and vegetables.(10) And, the poor are priced out of healthful eating. (10a)
“Will dentists hand out food vouchers and dietary advice on GKAS Day or just more fluoride?” asks Paul Beeber, President, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation. “It’s not all about avoiding sugar as most dentists preach,” says Beeber.
“With fluorosis rampant, dentists could make more kids smile by stopping fluoridation,” says Beeber
Dental Health Aide Therapists (DHATs) could be the solution to the oral health crisis. DHATs are to dentists what Physician’s Assistants and Nurse Practitioners are to Physicians. DHATs work successfully throughout the world and can drill, fill and pull teeth in the mouths and geographic areas where dentists can’t or won’t go, more cheaply and as effectively. (11)
Unfortunately, organized dentistry is suing to stop the first New Zealand trained U.S. DHAT from supplying much-needed dental care in Alaska where officials are unable to entice dentists to live or work. (12a) Defying organized dentistry, the first U.S. school just opened in Alaska to train more DHATs (12)
Children need dental care not more fluoride. In fluoridated Arlington, Texas, 61 percent of children examined had active decay After dentists donated their services, tooth decay was cut to less than half of what it was when the program started.(13)
Nationally, up to 48% of poor children, 8-year–olds and under, have unfilled cavities, whether their water is fluoridated or not. (13a).
Fluoride varnish is now used on children as soon as teeth emerge.
Fluoride varnish contains a highly toxic 22,600 parts per million (ppm) fluoride (14) compared to one ppm in fluoridated drinking water that’s not advised for under one-year-old babies (15) and 1,000 ppm in toothpaste that’s not to be used by children less than two years old. (16)
“Fluoride. It just doesn’t make sense anymore,” says Beeber..
Paul Beeber, Esq. email@example.com
New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc
PO Box 263
Old Bethpage, NY 11804
More evidence that fluoridation fails New York State:
(1) U.S. Dep’t of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, “Dental Care Improving Access and Quality”
U.S. General Accounting Organization, “Oral Health Factors Contributing to Low Use of Dental Services by Low-Income Populations,” September 2000
(2) New York State Department of Health, Community Health Assessment Indicators (Oral Health) http://www.health.state.ny.us/statistics/chac/chai/index.htm
(3) Fluoridation rate of NYS Counties provided by Tim Cook, DDS, former NYS Dep’t of Health employee
(4) The Impact of Oral Disease in New York State,” New York State Department of Health, Bureau of Dental Health, December 2006, Green et al (page 8)
(5) Potgieter, M., Morse, E.H., Erlenbach, F. M., and Dall, R.: The food habits and dental status of some Connecticut children. J. Dent. Res., 35:638. 1956
(6) Connecticut State Department of Public Health, “Open Wide Curriculum – Lesson 1: Dental Decay,” http://www.dph.state.ct.us/bch/oralhealth/publications_reports/openwide_curriculum/OW_Lesson_1.pdf
(7) “Elements of effective action to improve oral health & access to dental care for Connecticut’s children & families,” Commissioned by Connecticut Health Foundation and Children’s Fund of Connecticut, Prepared by James J. Crall, DDS, ScD and Burton L. Edelstein DDS, MPH (page 4)
(9) “The relationship between healthful eating practices and dental caries in children aged 2-5 years in the United States, 1988-94,” J. Am Dent Assoc, January 2004, by Dye et al.
(10) “U.S. Kids’ Health Habits Put Them at Risk,” Healthscout.com, Jan 26, 2007 http://www.healthscout.com/news/1/601319/main.html
Wednesday, January 24, 2007
January 23, 2007 -- New York -- Without fanfare or public announcement, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) posted a new fluoride caution on their website - avoid mixing fluoridated water into concentrated infant formula to prevent discoloring babies’ new teeth. (1)
This came after the American Dental Association issued this alert to its members, but not the public, on November 9, 2007(1a) and after the Food and Drug Administration's similar announcement (1b).
There is no dispute that too much fluoride causes dental fluorosis - white spotted, yellow or brown and sometimes pitted enamel. The CDC now admits that babies can ingest too much fluoride when fluoridated water is mixed into their concentrated infant formula and foods. Fluoride is added to 2/3 of public water supplies based on a disproved theory that fluoride ingestion prevents cavities.
"Where’s the media alert so that the parents, caregivers, healthcare workers and legislators know about this," asks lawyer Paul Beeber, President, New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc.(NYSCOF).
A New Hampshire newspaper reports the federal Women, Infant and Children (WIC) program still encourages mothers to mix formula with fluoridated water. (2)
“The CDC leaves it up to groups like ours to share the bad fluoride news,” says Beeber, “And then they will probably criticize us for doing so as they have in the past.” (2a)
This is what the CDC’s website says (1):
"It now appears that the amount of the fluoride contained in the water used for mixing infant formula may influence a child’s risk for developing enamel fluorosis, particularly if the child’s sole source of nutrition is from reconstituted infant formula."
“If tap water is fluoridated or has substantial natural fluoride (0.7 mg/L or higher), a parent may consider using a low-fluoride alternative water source. Bottled water known to be low in fluoride is labeled as purified, deionized, demineralized, distilled, or prepared by reverse osmosis.”
“Using only water with low fluoride levels to mix formula will not eliminate the risk of enamel fluorosis…Other factors that contribute to developing fluorosis include swallowing of toothpaste and use of dietary supplements that include fluoride (tablets or drops).”
The CDC reports that, “formula itself has low amounts of fluoride,” [and] “when infant formula concentrate is mixed with fluoridated water and used as the primary source of nutrition, it may introduce fluoride at levels above the amount recommended to minimize the risk for fluorosis.”
What is recommended?
According to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (3), to avoid moderate fluorosis (yellow or brown teeth), the adequate daily intake of fluoride, from all sources, should not exceed:
-- 0.01 mg/day for 0 – 6-month-olds
-- 0.5 mg/day for 7 through 12 months
-- 0.7 mg/day for 1 – 3-year-olds
Babies, under one year, consume over their adequate intake from the water supply alone at the so-called optimal concentrations (0.7 - 1.2 mg/L), according to the March 2006 NAS’ National Research Council (NRC) fluoride report (4).
The CDC reports, “one-third (33%) of children aged 12 to 15 years in the United States have very mild to mild forms of this condition.” However, the CDC omits that about 4% have moderate or severe fluorosis, according to the same reference. And up to ½ of all schoolchildren have fluorosis when the “questionable” category is included. (5)
The American Dental Association's Fluoridation Facts describes questionable fluorosis as "A few white specks or white spots." (6)
The CDC admits that “More cosmetically objectionable forms of this condition can occur when young children consume excess fluoride from all sources during critical periods of tooth development [up to age 8].”
Also alarming is that bottled water with added fluoride is now sold with the now-contraindicated instructions to mix into infant formula.(7)
Also little publicized is that the NRC report reveals that some people risk thyroid dysfunction and bone damage from drinking even low levels of fluoride; and studies linking fluoride to cancer and lowered IQ are plausible.
Few know that too much fluoride can actually decay teeth.(7a) And that the most widely used fluoridation chemicals, silicofluorides, are linked to higher rates of tooth decay.(7b)
“Parents also need to be taught the fluoride content of foods in easy-to-understand language, so it’s possible to tally daily fluoride intake and to be taught fluoride’s adverse health and dental effects,” says Beeber.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture has compiled fluoride content of foods. (8)
NYSCOF warned the public about a research review published in 2000 showing infant formula mixed with fluoridated water leads to fluorosis.(2a) Many published studies link infant formula to fluorosis.(9)
A Tennessee legislator who is also a medical doctor asked all water departments in Tennessee to shut off the fluoride because of health concerns.(10) In Oregon, a fluoridation bill is stalled by a doctor and nurse in the legislature citing health concerns.(11)
New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc.
Fluoride Action Network
SOURCE: New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc
1b) US FDA, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Nutritional Products, Labeling, and Dietary Supplements, October 14, 2006, “Health Claim Notification for Fluoridated Water and Reduced Risk of Dental Caries
(2) “Formula, fluoride mix may discolor infants’ teeth,” By Mark Hayward, Union Leader, Jan 11, 2007
(3) The National Academies of Science, “Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride,:1997
(4) The National Academies of Science, Committee on Fluoride in Drinking Water, National Research Council, “Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards,” March 2006
(5) US Centers for Disease Control. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/figures/s403a1t23.gif
(6) http://www.ada.org/public/topics/fluoride/facts/fluoridation_facts.pdf (page 28)
(7a) "Dentistry, Dental Practice, and the Community," 5th edition 1999 Burt/Eklund